The American Marketing Association defines marketing as, “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

Cristy Dena notes that the creation of what may be called constructed environments, of which narrative environemts may be considered one kind, is evident in contemporary marketing practices. Dena cites Timothy deWaal Malefyt argument that the use of “more sensory media which tap into a broader range of consumer experiences with brands” indicates “a reprioritization of experiential and sensory approaches to consumer marketing” (deWaal Malefyt 2006, 86).


Dena, C. (2009) Transmedia practice: theorising the practice of expressing a fictional world across distinct media and environments [PhD thesis]. University of Sydney. Available at: (Accessed: 5 March 2021).

deWaal Malefyt, Timothy. 2006. The Privatisation of Consumption: Marketing Media Through Sensory Modalities. Media International Australia, 119, 85-98.